ChemSub Online: The Free Web Portal and Information System on Chemical Substances from around the World: Glossary and Acronyms - Letter B.
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- InChI, InChIKey, MOSFIJXAXDLOML-UHFFFAOYSA-N, smiles, IUPAC Name.

ChemSub Online: The Free Web Portal and Information System on Chemical Substances from around the World: Glossary and Acronyms - Letter B.
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ChemSub Online: The Free Web Portal and Information System on Chemical Substances from around the World: Glossary and Acronyms - Letter B.
Provides information about:
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Bioaccumulation:
Build up of concentration of a pollutant in the animals at the end of a food chain. When one organism in a food chain eats another not only food chemicals are transferred, but any of the chemicals it contains. Some pollutants released as a result of human activity are very stable – or non-biodegradable. They do not break down nor can micro-organisms break them down. Once released they stay in the environment for hundreds and possibly thousands of years. These chemicals dissolve in fat deposits in the body and remain there. When the fat is eaten by another animal, all these chemicals are transferred with it. So the further down a food chain an organism is, the greater the concentration of chemicals. Animals at the end of food chains may be poisoned by the final concentrations of chemicals. The first chemical shown to be affecting animals in this way was DDT.
 
BAF:
Bioaccumulation Factor.

Is the ratio of a test chemical's concentration in a test organism's tissues to that in the surrounding medium, when all potential uptake mechanisms are included.
 
BCF:
Bioconcentration Factor.

A Bioconcentration factor (L/kg) can either be expressed as the ratio of the concentration of a substance in an organism to the concentration in water once a steady state has been achieved (static BCF), or, on a non-equillibrium basis, as the quotient of the uptake and depuration rate constants (dynamic BCF). Static and dynamic BCFs can be equally used for regulatory purposes. The parameter gives an indication of the accumulation potential of a substance.

According to EPA guidelines, "the BCF is defined as the ratio of chemical concentration in the organism to that in surrounding water. Bioconcentration occurs through uptake and retention of a substance from water only, through gill membranes or other external body surfaces. In the context of setting exposure criteria it is generally understood that the terms "BCF" and "steady-state BCF"' are synonymous. A steady-state condition occurs when the organism is exposed for a sufficient length of time that the ratio does not change substantially."

Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) are used to relate pollutant residues in aquatic organisms to the pollutant concentration in ambient waters. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) is related to biomagnification efects. Many chemical compounds, especially those with a hydrophobic component partition easily into the lipids and lipid membranes of organisms and bioaccumulate. If the compounds are not metabolized as fast as they are consumed, there can be significant magnification of potential toxicological effects up the food chain. The concern about bioaccumulation and biomagnification comes mainly from experience with chlorinated compounds, especially pesticides and PCBs, and their deleterious effects on vulnerable species, especially birds, frogs, and fish. Only minimal experimental and monitoring information has been gathered on the bioaccumulation properties of many other currently used chemical compounds. In fact, the biomagnification of many widely available chemicals has not been observed or predicted in aquatic systems.
BCF or BAF values are based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency publications pursuant to Section 304(a) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended, literature values, or site-specific bioconcentration data. Current EPA guidelines for the derivation of human health water quality criteria use BCFs as well.
For non-lipid soluble compounds, the BCF is determined empirically. The assumed water consumption is taken from the National Academy of Sciences publication Drinking Water and Health (1977). (Referenced in the Human Health Guidelines.) This value, of 2.0 liters/day, is appropriate as it includes a margin of safety so that the general population is protected. The 6.5 grams per day contaminated fish and shellfish consumption value is the average per-capita consumption rate of all (contaminated and non-contaminated) freshwater fish and shellfish for the U.S. population.
Although BCF assessments began as aquatic measurements, the exposure of plants and cattle to certain chemicals is also rated in terms of the bioconcentration factors.
 
Biodegradation:
The biologically mediated degradation or transformation of chemicals usually carried out by microorganisms.
 
BMD:
Benchmark Dose.
 
BMF:
Biomagnificant Factor.
 
BP:
Boiling Point.
 
bw:
Body weight / Bw, b.w.
 
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